Preheat the oven to 350ºF.
Make the dough by combining the cubed cream cheese, cubed butter, flour and salt in the bowl of a food processor. Pulse the ingredients together until the fat becomes evenly dispersed within the flour (the dough will be crumbly but still stick together).
Shape the dough into a ball, place it into a bowl and cover the bowl with plastic wrap. Refrigerate the dough for one hour or up to one day.
Remove the dough from the refrigerator and cut it into 4 pieces. Place 3 pieces back into the refrigerator.
Combine the sugar and cinnamon in a small bowl. Set aside.
Place the ball of dough on a lightly floured surface, and using a rolling pin, shape it into a disc of approximately 1/8-inch thickness. The dough will be very hard, so it's best to first beat it down with a rolling pin (as if you were making puff pastry). It will loosen up as it comes to room temperature.
Immediately brush the disc with one-fourth of the melted butter and sprinkle it with one-fourth of the cinnamon and sugar mixture. Sprinkle one-fourth of the chocolate onto the disc, pressing the chocolate into the dough.
Cut the disc into 12 wedges.
Roll each wedge up, starting from the thickest end, until you form a crescent shape.
Repeat the process with the other three balls of dough.
Transfer the uncooked rugelach onto a baking sheet lined with parchment paper and refrigerate for 30 minutes before baking. (You can also freeze them at this point for later use.)
Bake the rugelach for 18-20 minutes, or until they are golden brown.
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